What is Quantum Computing?
In essence, quantum computing is a computational system that allows for an outcome to be predicted based on a summation of states, rather than be derived from a series of investigations into the physical binary states of all data required to define the outcome.
In this way, the algorithms involved can define the outcome before the physical measurement of an object and its state.
Example concept 1 –
Think of a light switch in a cellar as an example. If you walk into the room and can see, you already know the light is on, the pre-existing factors determine it is on without needing to measure the factors that drive the outcome or review the physical state of the switch itself.
Example concept 2 –
As another example – assume for a second you have a locked door and a thousand keys to hand that might or might not fit, being able to try all the keys at the same time and in a fraction of a second is a clear advantage, in the same time period you would have historically tried one key, you’ll have now unlocked the door.
A move from binary to Qbit and superposition –
Quantum computing differs from a traditional logic and binary on/off assessment of data, a Qbit for example can indeed be on or off. Still, it can also be assumed to be both simultaneously (a state of superposition). This means superposition is when an object exists in multiple states at the same time and is only considered a single state at the point of measurement.
The use of superposition allows quantum computers to derive a result by simultaneously looking at all contributory factors, rather than serially analysing data and each respective outcome to reach a result.
Objects in a state of superposition can also have a relational state to other objects (an entanglement) meaning that by knowing the state of one object (without the need for further processing) you will also know the state of the other.
For people outside of the computer world, the benefits in quantum computing may not be instantly apparent, but by understanding the capability that the parallel computational process provides, the power behind this computer science can definitely be appreciated.